• Principles of impingement of jets - Impact of jet on a stationary vertical plate, stationary inclined plate, stationary curved plate, hinged plate, moving vertical and inclined, moving curved plate, series of moving flat and curved vanes.
  •  Turbines - impulse turbines - Pelton wheel - Reaction turbines - Francis and Kaplan Turbines - draft tubes - Governing of a Francis turbine - Performance of turbines - specific speed and their significance.
  •  Centrifugal pump - description and working - Head, discharge and efficiency of a centrifugal pump - pressure rise in the pump - minimum starting speed of a pump – cavitation - characteristic curves - priming - multistage pumps.
  •  Reciprocating pump - Description and working - types - discharge and slip - power required to drive the pump - Indicator diagram - Air vessel - Description and working - work done against friction with and without air vessels.
  • Working principle and use of the following hydraulic pumps and machines – Deep well pumps - submersible and jet pumps - Gear pump - screw pump, sewage pump - Hydraulic press - hydraulic accumulator - Hydraulic ram.


  •   Bansal, R.K., A text book of Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulic Machines, Laxmi Publications, 1994.
  •  Nagaratnam, S., Fluid Machines and Systems, Tata McGraw Hill, 1989.
  •  Khurmi, R.S., Text Book of Hydraulics and Hydraulic Machine, M/s Chand & Co, 1993.