SURVEYING - II
- Tacheometric Surveying - Stadia method - fixed hair method - Anallatic lens - Horizontal and inclined sights - vertical and normal staff - subtense bar - Tangential method - constant base and variable base measurements - simple problems – EDM and Total Stations.
- Curve Surveying - Horizontal curves - simple, compound and reverse curves - Circular curves - Transition curves - cubic parabola, log - spiral - vertical curves – parabola – setting out of buildings – culverts – tunnels – marking for foundation and excavation.
- Triangulation - different networks - orders and accuracies - intervisibility and height of stations, signals and towers - Base line measurement - instruments and accessories - tape corrections - extension of base line - Satellite stations - Reduction to centre - Introduction to Global Positioning System (GPS)
- Observations for heights and distances - Geodetic observations - Corrections for refraction, curvature, axis signal - Reciprocal observations.
- Types of errors - most probable value - weighted observations - principle of least squares - Normal equations - Method of correlates - adjustment of simple triangle and quadrilateral network without central station.
- Duggal, S.K. Surveying Vol. I and II, Tata McGraw Hill, 1996.
- Punmia, B.C. Surveying and Field Work,Standard Publishers, 1990.
- Kanetkar,T.P, Kulkarni, S.V., Surveying and Levelling Vol.I and II, Pune Vidyarthi Griha Prakashan, 1992.