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Dielectric materials, when subjected to an electric field will exhibit a phenomenon known as polarization. Polarization result in the creation of dipoles due to vanishing neutralitiy. ie the electrons and protons in an atom shift their positions in response to an electric field so that it exhibits + and - centres. The centre of gravity for the positive and negative charges for a polar molecule are not coincidental. Polarization can be distinguished into different types such as electronic, ionic, molecular polarization.
The electric dipole moment of a polarized molecule is the product of charge, q and distance,d between the + and - charges.
Polarization is the sum of the dipole moment per unit volume.