Unit – I
Introduction- Purpose of Database System -– Views of data – data models, database management system, three-schema architecture of DBMS, components of DBMS. E/R Model - Conceptual data modeling - motivation, entities, entity types, attributes, relationships, relationship types, E/R diagram notation, examples.
Unit – II
Relational Model- Relational Data Model - Concept of relations, schema-instance distinction, keys, referential integrity and foreign keys, relational algebra operators, SQL - Introduction, data definition in SQL, table, key and foreign key definitions, update behaviors. Querying in SQL, notion of aggregation, aggregation functions group by and having clauses, embedded SQL
Unit – III
Database Design- Dependencies and Normal forms, dependency theory - functional dependencies, Armstrong's axioms for FD's, closure of a set of FD's, minimal covers, definitions of 1NF, 2NF, 3NF and BCNF, decompositions and desirable properties of them, algorithms for 3NF and BCNF normalization, 4NF, and 5NF
Unit – IV
Transactions- Transaction processing and Error recovery - concepts of transaction processing, ACID properties, concurrency control, locking based protocols for CC, error recovery and logging, undo, redo, undo-redo logging and recovery methods.
Unit – V
Implementation Techniques- Data Storage and Indexes - file organizations, primary, secondary index structures, various index structures - hash-based, dynamic hashing techniques, multi-level indexes, B+ trees.