• To study issues related to the design and analysis of systems with real-time constraints.
  • To learn the features of Real time OS.
  • To study the various Uniprocessor and Multiprocessor scheduling mechanisms.
  • To learn about various real time communication protocols.
  • To study the difference between traditional and real time databases



  • Knowledge about Schedulability analysis.
  • Ability to learn Real-time programming environments.
  • Knowledge about real time communication and databases.
  • Ability to develop real time systems.


Unit – I

Introduction to real-time computing-Structure of a real-time system - Characterization of real-time systems and tasks - Performance measures.


Unit – II

Task Assignment and Scheduling- Uniprocessor scheduling algorithms - Task assignment - Mode changes - Fault tolerant scheduling.


Unit – III

Real-time Communication- Network topologies and architecture issues - Protocols - Contention-based, token-based, polled bus - Fault tolerant routing.


Unit – IV

Real-time Databases- Transaction priorities and aborts - Concurrency control issues - Scheduling algorithms - Two-phase approach to improve predictability.


Unit – V

Programming Languages and Tools- Hierarchical decomposition - Run-time error handling - Overloading - Timing specification - Recent trends and developments.



  • C. M. Krishna and Kang G. Shin, "Real-Time Systems", International Edition, McGraw Hill Companies, Inc., New York, 1997