• Surface investigation - Geophysical - electrical resistivity - Seismic refraction - Gravity and magnetic - Geologic - Air photo interpretation - Dowsing. Subsurface investigation - test drilling - resistivity logging- potential logging - temperature and caliper logging.
  •  Steady unidirectional flow - well in a uniform flow - steady flow with uniform recharge - unsteady radial flow to a well - well flow near aquifer boundaries - Multiple well systems - partially penetrating wells - characteristic well losses.
  •  Secular and seasonal variations - Fluctuations due to evapo-transpiration, Meteorological phenomena, tides, external loads and earthquakes - control by drains and wells. Recharge through sewages pits and shafts and wells.
  •  Occurrence of sea water intrusion - Ghypon-Heizberg relation between fresh and saline waters - shape length and structure of the fresh salt water interface - prevention and control of seawater intrusion - role of sea water in ground water - coastal zoning. Sand models - Electrical models - Viscous fluid models - membrane models - numerical analysis methods.


  •   Raghunath H.M., Ground Water Hydrology, New-Age International, 2nd Edition, 1990.