• Generalised measurements - Degrees of freedom - Constrained Measurements - Behaviour of structures - Principle of superposition. Stiffness and flexibility matrices - Constrained measurements - Stiffness and flexibility coefficients from virtual work.
  •  Strain energy - Stiffness and flexibility matrices from strain energy - Symmetry and other properties of stiffness and flexibility matrices - Betti's law and its applications - Strain energy in systems and in elements.
  •  Determinate and indeterminate structures - Transformation of element matrices to system matrices - Transformation of system vectors to element vectors - Normal coordinates and orthogonal transformations.
  •  Flexibility method applied to statically determinate and indeterminate structures - Choice of redundants - Transformation of redundants - Internal forces due to thermal expansion and lack of fit.
  •  Development of the method - Internal forces due to thermal expansion and lack of fit - Application to symmetrical structures - Comparison between stiffness and flexibility methods.


  • Moshe, F., Rubenstein, Matrix Computer Analysis of Structures, Prentice Hall, New York.
  •  Rajasekaran S, Computational Structural Mechanics, Prentice Hall of India.