• Influence lines - Maxwell Betti's theorem - Muller Breslau's principle and its application. Influence lines for continuous beams and single bay, single storey portals with prismatic members.
  •  Analysis of plane truss with one or more redundant members by displacement and force methods - trusses with lack of fit - Thermal stresses - Settlement of supports - Trussed beams.
  •  Theory of arches - Analysis of three hinged, two hinged and fixed arches - influence lines, rib shortening, settlement and temperature effects.
  •  Analysis of forces in cables - Suspension bridges with three and two hinged stiffening girders - influence lines.
  •  Analysis of multistorey frames for gravity loads and wind loads by approximate methods - Substitute frame - Portal and Cantilever methods.


  •   Punmia, B.C, Theory of Structures, Laxmi Publications, 1992.
  •  Timoshenko, S.P.,Young, D.H., Theory of Structures, Tata McGraw Hill, 1965.
  •  Wang. C.K., Intermediate Structural Analysis, International Text Book Co, 1970.