• Earth Retaining structures - Retaining walls- types - cantilever and counterfort - design - drainage and other construction details.
  •  Liquid Retaining structure – Water tanks - types - square, rectangular, circular - Design of underground and elevated tanks - design of staging – spherical & conical roof for circular tanks.
  •  Material storage structures - Determination of lateral pressure on side walls of bunker - Rankine's theory - design of bunker - design of circular silo using Jansen's theory.
  •  Environmental Structures - Chimneys - Principles and Design - Design of long columns.
  •  Transporting structures - Bridges - Slab bridge - Design of single span slab bridge - Tee beam bridge - Design of Tee beam bridge with stiffness - Tee beam bridge with cross girders


     Note: Assignments include the drawings of various R.C.C structures.


  •   Vazirani, V.N., and Ratwani, Concrete Structures, Vol. IV, Khanna Publishers, New Delhi, 1995.
  •  Punmia, B.C., Ashok Kumar Jain and Arun Kumar Jain, Reinforced concrete structures, Vol. I and Vol. II, Lakshmi Publications, New Delhi, 1992.
  •  Victor, D.J., Essentials of Bridge Engineering, Oxford & IBH Publishers Co., Newdelhi.