CL205

MOMENTUM TRANSFER

OBJECTIVE : This course deals with concepts of fluid flow, measurements and transportation.

1. PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS AND CONCEPT OF PRESSURE:

Introduction - Nature of fluids - physical properties of fluids -types of fluids. Fluid static: Pressure - density - height relationships .Pressure Measurement. Units & Dimensions. Dimensional analysis. Similarly - forces arising out of physical similarity - dimensionless numbers.

2. MOMENTUM BALANCE AND THEIR APPLICATIONS:

Kinematics of fluid flow: Stream line-stream tube-velocity potential. Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids - Time dependent fluids - Reynolds number - experiment and significance - Momentum balance - Forces acting on stream tubes - Potential flow - Bernoulli's equation - Correction for fluid friction - Correction for pump work.

3. FLOW OF INCOMPRESSIBLE FLUIDS THROUGH DUCTS:

Flow of incompressible fluids in pipes- laminar and turbulent flow through closed conduits -velocity profile & friction factor for smooth and rough pipes-Head loss due to friction in pipes, fitting etc. Introduction to compressible flow. isentropic flow through convergent and divergent nozzles and sonic velocity.

4. FLOW OF FLUIDS THROUGH SOLIDS:

Form drag-skin drag - Drag co-efficient. Flow around solids and packed beds. Friction factor for packed beds. Ergun's Equation - Motion of particles through fluids-Motion under gravitational and centrifugal fields-Terminal settling velocity.-Fluidization -mechanism, types, general properties ,applications

5. TRANSPORTATION AND METERING:

Measurement of fluid flow: Orifice meter, venturi meter , pilot tube, rotameter, weirs and notches Wet gas meter and dry gas meter. Hot wire and hot film anemometers-Transportation of fluids: Fluid moving machinery performance. Selection and specification. Air lift and diaphragm pump. Positive displacement pumps: Rotary- & Reciprocating pumps. Centrifugal pumps and characteristics.

TEXTBOOKS:

1. W.L. McCabe, J.C. Smith and P.Harriott, "Unit operations of Chemical Engineering", 5th Edn., McGraw Hill, International Edn., 1993.

REFERENCES:

1. J.M. Coulson and J. F.Richardson, "Chemical Engineering", Vol 1,3rd Edn., Pergamon Press, 1978.
2. Noel D. Nevers, "Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers", McGraw Hill, International Edition, 1990.